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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2021| January-March  | Volume 33 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 23, 2021

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The comparative evaluation of various additives on setting time and compressive strength of MTA Plus: An in vitro study
Mahima Tilakchand, Priyanka Pandey, Praveen Shetty, Balaram Naik, Shruti Shetti, Chandrasekaran Nirmala
January-March 2021, 33(1):36-42
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_75_20  
Background and Objectives: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), being a near-ideal retrograde filling material, has the greatest disadvantage of longer setting time, which limits its use in a certain clinical situation. A novel MTA, known as MTA Plus, claims to have a finer particle size and is marketed with an additional anti-washout gel. This study was undertaken to compare the setting time and compressive strength (CS) of MTA Plus with various additives. Materials and Methodology: MTA Plus powder was mixed with following additives such as 5% CaCl2 solution, 10% CaCl2 solution, phosphate-buffered saline, 80% distilled water/20% propylene glycol, saline, lidocaine HCl, 15% sodium phosphate monobasic, 3% sodium hypochlorite gel, and proprietary gel with MTA Plus in the ratio of 3:1 by weight. Setting time was evaluated using Vicat apparatus using a brass mold with an internal diameter of 10 mm and height of two millimeters. CS was evaluated using an Instron machine using a split brass mold with an internal diameter of Four millimeters and height of Six millimeters. Results: The results showed that 15% sodium hydrogen phosphate and MTA Plus gel significantly decrease the setting time of MTA Plus. MTA Plus gel set cement gave the highest value of CS among all groups of additives studied. Interpretation and Conclusion: Additives used in the given study had an influence on physical property like setting time and mechanical property like CS of MTA Plus.
  1 632 138
A population-based observational morphologic measurements of anatomic landmarks in maxillary and mandibular molar
Esha Agarwal, Vineeta Nikhil
January-March 2021, 33(1):43-48
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_132_20  
Aim: The aim of this study is to study the morphological measurements of external and internal anatomic landmarks in human maxillary and mandibular molars and their correlation with critical pulp chamber morphology. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 mandibular and maxillary molar teeth of patients were evaluated. Teeth whose pulp chamber were not violated by caries, restoration, fracture crown, and those having closed apex were included in the study. Teeth were subjected to radiovisiography of bitewing projection and imaging tool was utilized for measuring-A: Distance from the pulp chamber floor to the furcation, B: Distance from the pulp chamber ceiling to the furcation, C: Distance from the buccal cusp tip to the furcation, D: Distance from the buccal cusp to the floor of the pulp chamber, E: Distance from the buccal cusp to the ceiling of pulp chamber, and F: Pulp chamber height. Differences in the measurements were examined using the Student's t-test and Pearson correlations. All results were considered statistically significant if P < 0.05. Results: There were significant differences found among the various measurements between young and old population groups (P < 0.05). The highest percentage variance was found for the height of the pulp chamber (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The knowledge of pulp chamber morphology should be integrated with preoperative radiograph and intraoperative tactile perception during endodontic access preparation.
  - 518 98
Apexification or regeneration? A case report of a short mineral trioxide aggregate apical plug: 8-year follow-up
Olcay Özdemir, Levent Demiriz
January-March 2021, 33(1):49-52
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_179_20  
The management of an immature permanent tooth protocol aims to eliminate pulpal pathology, disinfection, and if possible, redevelopment of the root. The paper aimed to present a case report that a successful survival history of a seemingly inadequate mineral trioxide aggregate plug and its 8-year follow-up. In the presented case, all treatment goals such as the elimination of clinical symptoms/signs of infection, apical periodontitis healing, healthy lamina dura, and further root maturation were achieved; however, a formation was observed in an 8-year recall similar to regeneration-associated intracanal calcification. There was no way to clinically understand how the healing process occurred in the area histologically, but the follow-up showed that the relevant tooth met the healing criteria.
  - 636 1
A comparative evaluation of cyclic fatigue resistance of Reciproc Blue, WaveOne Gold and 2Shape nickel–titanium rotary files in different artificial canals
Ankita Grace Lall, Suparna Ganguly Saha, Vijay Alageshan, Parmeet Banga
January-March 2021, 33(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_83_19  
Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance (CFR) of continuous rotation file systems (2Shape) and two reciprocating file systems (Reciproc Blue [RB] and WaveOne Gold [WOG]) in canals with different angulations. Materials and Method: Thirty files each of 2Shape (25, 0.06), RB R25 (25/0.08) and WOG Primary (25/0.07) were included in this study. All the instruments were used according to the manufacturers instructions in an endodontic fatigue testing block with three artificial grooves simulating root canals having angulations of 45°, 60°, and 90°. The files were allowed to rotate in the grooves, until fracture occurred and the time to fracture was recorded in seconds using digital chronometer. The data were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey test. Results: The reciprocating file systems RB showed significantly higher CFR at all angles of curvature, i.e., 45°, 60°, and 90° (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present in vitro study, it may be concluded that RB tends to be more resistant to fracture in canals with a gentle curvature as well as may be more suited in canals with sharp and acute curvatures.
  - 982 233
Evaluation and comparison of the effect of 10% sodium ascorbate and propolis solution on the microtensile bond strength and resin tag penetration depth of composite after using 35% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent – An in vitro study
Archa Anil, Liza George, Prasanth Dhanapal, Priya Thomas, Sinju Paul
January-March 2021, 33(1):11-14
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_69_19  
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of 10% sodium ascorbate and propolis solution on the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) and resin tag penetration depth of composite after using 35% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent. Materials and Method: Sixty extracted human premolars were divided into five groups with 12 samples in each. Group I samples did not receive bleaching treatment and served as control. Group II samples were bonded with composite 2 weeks later, while those in Group III were bonded immediately after bleaching. The samples in Group IV and Group V were treated with antioxidants 10% SA and propolis solution at the rate of 1ml/min for 10 min, respectively, before composite bonding. The samples were then sectioned mesiodistally into two halves. One half was subjected to MTBS testing using a Universal Testing Machine. The other half was decalcified, sectioned, stained, and viewed under an optical light microscope to assess the resin tag penetration. The results obtained were statistically analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance followed by Post hoc test. Results: Group III showed significantly lower MTBS and resin tag penetration depth of composite compared to all other groups. Group V (propolis group) showed statistical significance with all groups except Group IV (SA group). Conclusion: Treatment with antioxidant propolis solution immediately following the bleaching will help to reverse the compromised bond strength which is comparable with sodium ascorbate.
  - 896 151
Comparative evaluation of photoactivated disinfection and sonic irrigation as an adjunct to conventional irrigation on Enterococcus faecalis in root canals: An in vitro study
Tushar Kohli, Namrata Mehta, Garima Garima, Alpa Gupta, Shakila Mahesh, Dax Abraham, Arundeep Singh
January-March 2021, 33(1):15-19
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_12_20  
Objective: The aim of the in vitro study was to compare the antibacterial efficacy of photoactivated disinfection (PAD), sonic irrigation as an adjunct to conventional irrigation against Enterococcus faecalis in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 extracted teeth were selected and prepared followed by inoculation with strains of E. faecalis, and a preirrigation sample was collected using sterile paper points. These teeth were then divided randomly into three groups for irrigation: Group I (Conventional irrigation), Group II (PAD), and Group III (EndoActivator) followed by postirrigation sample collection using the sterile paper points. The samples were swabbed on blood agar plates and incubated followed by the calculation of colony-forming units (CFU's). Results: The results were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software version 18.0. On comparing the mean values among the groups, the reduction in the number of CFU's after the treatment protocol was highly significant for all groups (P < 0.001). With the preirrigation sample, there is a statistically significant difference in the values of Group I and Group II (P = 0.047). However, in case of postirrigation samples, there is nonsignificant difference between Group II and Group III. Conclusion: PAD using 940 nm diode laser and methylene blue and endoactivator were more effective than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in reducing E. faecalis counts.
  - 1,454 151
An assessment of the efficacy of a rotary and a reciprocating retreatment file system for removal of gutta-percha from root canals: An in vitro cone-beam computed tomography study
Kapil Dasaram Wahane, Shraddha Shekhar Kulkarni, Sadashiv Daokar, Kalpana Patil, Karishma Patel, Trupti Thorat
January-March 2021, 33(1):20-24
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_17_20  
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the NeoEndo and WaveOne retreatment systems concerning the effective removal of epoxy resin-based sealer and gutta-percha during the retreatment of straight root canals. Materials and Method: Sixty extracted, human mandibular first premolars with single straight roots were selected based on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) evaluations. The root canals were instrumented with the ProTaper system up to the F3 file and filled with gutta-percha and epoxy resin-based sealer using the cold lateral condensation technique. After 1 month, the samples were randomly divided into two groups (n = 30) according to the retreatment system used: NeoEndo and WaveOne. A CBCT device scanned specimen after the root filling and retreatment procedures, and the decrease in the volume of filling material after each retreatment protocol was measured. The results were analyzed using the paired t-test and additional box-and-whisker plots. Results: The WaveOne removed significantly more material than the NeoEndo (P = 0.005) system. Conclusion: The WaveOne system was more effective than the NeoEndo retreatment system during the removal of filling material.
  - 1,195 176
A comparative evaluation of the shaping ability of four different single-file systems in severely curved mesiobuccal root canals of mandibular first molars: An in vitro study
Vivek Kumar Pathak, Rajnish K Singhal, Anurag Jain, Saurabh Mankeliya, Kaushal Singh, Ashish Sharma
January-March 2021, 33(1):25-29
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_54_20  
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the shaping ability of four different single-file systems in severely curved mesiobuccal root canals in extracted human mandibular first molars. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted intact human mandibular first molars with at least one curved mesial root were collected and used for the study. The study samples (n = 60) were divided into four experimental groups (n = 15 each): WaveOne (WO) (Group I), WaveOne Gold (WOG) (Group II), OneShape (Group III), and F360 (Group IV). The working length was established. All the study samples were prepared with respective file systems according to manufacturer's instructions. Pre- and postinstrumentation radiographs were taken and images were transferred to AutoCAD 2016 to determine the radius of curvature of each root canal. The canal curvature was assessed as a difference between before and after instrumentation to determine canal straightening. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS version 20.0. Results: The pre- and postinstrumentation readings were compared using one-sample t-test, and difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). The mean difference in root curvature was estimated by pre- and postinstrumentation readings. According to mean change in the root curvature, the order determined was Group IV < III < II < I. Intergroup comparison was conducted using ANOVA statistical analysis, and it was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: WOG and WO reciprocating files showed a marked tendency to straighten the severely curved canals, whereas F360 and OneShape continuous files maintained the original canal curvatures well.
  - 806 155
Cone-beam computed tomography assessment of root canal transportation and evaluation of remaining dentin thickness using XP EndoShaper and EndoStar E5
Nikita Arun Kamat, Saritha Vallabhaneni, Prahlad Saraf, Laxmikant Kamatagi, Shrishail Totad
January-March 2021, 33(1):30-35
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_16_20  
Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare canal transportation and remaining dentin thickness (RDT) of multiple-file system EndoStar E5 and single-file system XP EndoShaper (XPS) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and method: A total of 50 mesiobuccal canals of the maxillary first molars with curvatures of 15°°–30°° were chosen and randomly divided into two experimental groups (n = 25). Canals were shaped with XPS in Group 1 and with EndoStar E5 in Group 2. According to the manufacturer's instructions, canal preparation was made. Canals were scanned before and after instrumentation using CBCT scanner to evaluate the root canal transportation at 3, 5, and 7 mm from the apex. Data were statistically analyzed, and significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results: Intergroup comparison mesiodistally showed that there was no significant canal transporation among both groups. Intergroup comparison buccolingually showed that there was statistically significant canal transporation at five millimeters when instrumented with XPS than EndoStar E5. With respect to RDT, intergroup comparison showed that mesially, distally, lingually, and bucally, there was no significant difference in the RDT. Conclusion: The present study indicates safety in the preparation of root canals with XPS as well as EndoStar E5. Both the files maintained original canal curvature while preserving RDT.
  - 623 108
Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Asphaline Temp, Triple antibiotic Paste and Ultracal XS against Enterococcus faecalis – An in vitro study
Siddhesh Bandekar, Aditi Amin, Shirin Kshirsagar, N Vathsala, Vyas Chinmay, Anjum Sayyad
January-March 2021, 33(1):6-10
DOI:10.4103/endo.endo_55_19  
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of asphaline temp, triple antibiotic paste (TAP), and Ultracal Xs against Enterococcus faecalis – An in vitro study. Materials and method: A hundred and twenty freshly extracted, single-rooted human permanent teeth were instrumented and autoclaved. Samples were inoculated with the pure culture of E. faecalis and incubated. After incubation, colony-forming units (CFUs) were recorded before medication. Each group was further divided into three subgroups containing ten samples each for days – 1 day, 5 days, and 7 days. Group A – Asphaline Temp; Group B – TAP; Group C – Calcium hydroxide; and Group D – Normal saline (Control). The various time interval bacterial (CFU) within the group were compared by the Analysis of Variance followed by Tukey's Post hoc test. Results: The greater antimicrobial effects were observed in the samples treated with Asphaline temp (P < 0.005). No statistical antimicrobial difference was found between Asphaline temp and TAP. Conclusion: Asphaline temp demonstrated significant antimicrobial effectiveness against E. faecalis.
  - 1,148 180
TRIBUTE TO LATE PROF. DR. JAGANNATHAN
Tribute to late Prof. Dr. Jagannathan
MR Srinivasan
January-March 2021, 33(1):53-53
DOI:10.4103/0970-7212.311753  
  - 314 79